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The Book of Ezekiel

Dennis Bratcher

Overview of the Book of Ezekiel

I.  Ezekiel, The Man

A.  A Priest

B.  Active during the exile (593 - c. 563 BC), probably taken as an exile to Babylon

C.  Used symbolic actions and visions to communicate his message

D.  Illustrated his message with his own life situation

E.  Highly articulate in literary composition

F.  The prophet of individual responsibility 

II.  Ezekiel, The Book:

A.  Essentially from Ezekiel, with a few later insertions.

B.  High literary quality, moving from judgment to hope. 

C.  Chapters 1-24: Judgment against Judah, before the fall of Jerusalem (Oracles of Judgement)

1.  Visions depicting the loss of the presence of God

2.  Symbolism and allegories interpreting the Babylonian invasion and Judah's faithlessness

3.  Condemnation of false prophets and the people's sins

4.  Individuals bear personal responsibility for their sins

 

D.  Chapters 25-32: Judgment against foreign nations (Oracles against Foreign Nations)

E.  Chapters 33-48: Promises for a restored future after the fall of Jerusalem (Oracles of Hope

1.  God as the Good Shepherd who cares for His flock

2.  Promise of a new covenant

3.  Restoration of the people to their land

4.  Stylized portrayal of the restored community

III.  Key chapters in Ezekiel

Chapter 3: Son of man, I have made you a watchman over the house of Israel . . . you shall give them a warning from me

Chapters 10-11: Then the glory of the Lord went out from the threshold of the house.

Chapter 16:  On the day you were born . . . no eye pitied you. . . I washed you and anointed you with oil . . . but you trusted in your beauty.

Chapter 18: The person who sins, he shall die.

Chapter 34: The people were scattered because there was no shepherd . . . I myself will be the shepherd of my sheep, says the Lord.

Chapter  36:  A new heart I will give you and a new spirit I will put within you.

Chapter  37: Prophesy to these bones . . . O dry bones hear the word of the Lord . . . I will put my breath within you and you shall live!

Chapter 43:  The glory of the Lord filled the temple.

Outline of the Book of Ezekiel

I.  Oracles of Judgment, 1-24

A. Ezekiel’s Inauguration as a Prophet (1-7)

1. The call of Ezekiel (1:1-3:27)

a. superscription (1:1-3)

b. the throne chariot vision (1:4-28a)

c. commissioning to the prophetic office (1:28b-3:27)

2. Symbolic actions concerning Jerusalem (4:1-5:17)

a. the siege of Jerusalem depicted (4:1-3)

b. the length of punishment (4:4-8)

c. famine depicted (4:9-17)

d. imagery of mourning and destruction (5:1-17)

3. Oracles against Israel (6:1-7:27)

a. devastation of the land (6:1-14)

b. the end has come (7:1-27)

B. The Temple Visions: The kabod Departs (8-11)

1. Imagery of idolatry (8:1-18)

a. the image of jealousy (8:1-6)

b. wall images (8:7-13)

c. Tammuz (8:14-15)

d. sun worship (8:16-18)

2. The executioners (9:1-11)

3. The kabod leaves the Temple (10:1-22)

4. Judgment and hope (11:1-21)

a. judgment on bad leaders (11:1-13)

b. promise of return for exiles (11:14-21)

5. The kabod leaves the city (11:22-25)

C. Symbolic Actions Depicting Exile (12:1-20)

1. Baggage and escape (12:1-16)

2. Imagery of fear (12:17-20)

D. The Importance of the Prophetic Word (12:21-13:23)

1. The urgency of Ezekiel’s message (12:21-28)

2. False prophets (13:1-23)

a. against prophets with a false message (13:1-16)

b. against mediums and magicians (13:17-23)

E. Idolatry and Righteousness (14:1-23)

1. Against religious syncretism (14:1-11)

2. Individual righteousness (14:12-23)

F. Instruction by Allegory (15:1-17:24)

1. Allegory of the vine (15:1-8)

2. Allegory of the foundling child (16:1-63)

a. Jerusalem the helpless infant (16:1-7)

b. the covenanted wife (16:8-14)

c. the prostitute (16:15-34)

d. the consequences (16:35-54

e. like mother, like daughter (16:44-52)

f. restoration and new covenant (16:53-63)

3. Allegory of the eagles (17:1-21)

4. Allegory of the cedar (17:22-24)

G. Individual Responsibility (18:1-32)

1. the principle of individual accountability (18:1-29)

2. call to repentance (18:30-32)

H. Allegories of Judah (19:1-14)

1. Allegory of the lioness (19:1-9)

2. Allegory of the vine (19:10-14)

I. Israel’s Apostasy (20:1-22:31)

1. Israel’s history of failure (20:1-44)

a) promise and idolatry in Egypt (20:1-8)

b. idolatry in the wilderness (20:9-26)

c. idolatry in Canaan (20:27-31)

d. judgment in the wilderness (20:32-39)

e. grace and restoration (20:40-44)

2. Oracle against the south (20:45-49)

3. Sword oracles (21:1-32)

a. God’s sword against Israel (21:1-7)

b. song of the sword (21:8-17)

c. the king of Babylon’s sword against Israel (21:18-24)

d. the end of the wicked prince (21:25-27)

e. a sword against Ammon (21:28-32)

4. Indictment of the bloody city (22:1-31)

a. the charges (22:1-12)

b. the verdict and sentence (22:13-16)

c. judgment as purification (22:17-22)

d. indictment and verdict again (22:23-31)

J. Allegories of Apostasy (23:1-24:14)

1. Allegory of the two sisters (23:1-49)

a. key to the allegory (23:1-4)

b. Oholah/Samaria (23:5-10)

c. Oholibah/Jerusalem (23:11-35)

d. consequences of idolatry (23:36-49)

2. Allegory of the pot (24:1-14)

K. The Death of Ezekiel’s Wife (24:15-27)

1. A sign for the people (24:15-24)

2. Waiting for the destruction (24:25-27)

II. Oracles Against Foreign Nations, 25-32

A. Against Ammon (25:1-7)

B. Against Moab (25:8-11)

C. Against Edom (25:12-14)

D. Against Philistia (25:15-17)

E. Against Tyre (26:1-28:19)

1. Oracle of the siege and destruction of Tyre by Nebuchaddrezzar (26:1-21)

2. Dirge over Tyre (27:1-36)

3. Oracle and dirge against the King of Tyre (28:1-19)

F. Against Sidon (28:20-23)

G. Against Egypt (29:1-32:32)

1. Against pharaoh and Egypt (29:1-16)

2. Egypt given to Nebuchaddrezzar (29:17-21)

3. The downfall of Egypt (30:1-26)

4. Allegory of the cedar (31:1-18)

5. Dirge over pharaoh (32:1-16)

6. Egypt in the Pit (32:17-32)

III. Oracles of Hope, 33-48

A. The Shift toward Hope

1. Responsibility of the sentinel (33:1-9)

2. The people’s responsibility for righteous living (33:10-20)

3. News of the fall of Jerusalem (33:21-22)

B. Flocks and Shepherds (34:1-31)

1. Unfaithful shepherds of Israel (34:1-10)

2. God the good shepherd (34:11-16)

3. The mixed flock (34:17-31)

a. the fat and lean sheep (34:17-22)

b. one shepherd (34:23-24)

c. the covenant of peace (34:25-31)

C. Oracle of Judgment against Edom (35:1-15)

D. The Restoration of Israel (36:1-38)

1. Oracle to the mountains of Israel (36:1-15)

2. The land polluted (36:16-21)

3. Cleansing and a new heart for God’s name sake (36:21-32)

4. The land cleansed and restored (36:33-38)

E. The Valley of Dry Bones (37:1-28)

1. The bones and ruach: new life (37:1-14)

2. The two sticks: a unified people (37:15-28)

F. Oracles Concerning Gog and Magog (38:1-39:29)

1. Oracle against Gog king of Magog (38:1-9)

2. Plots against defenseless people thwarted by God (38:10-23)

3. The defeat of Gog and his army (39:1-20)

4. Restoration of the people and land (39:21-29)

G. Visions of the Restored Community: The Temple (40:1-44:31)

1. Measuring the Temple (40:1-42:20)

a. the layout of the gates and courts (40:1-47)

b. the layout of the three divisions of the temple (40:48-41:26)

c. the layout of the chambers (42:1-14)

d. the outside measurements (42:15-20)

2. The return of the kabod to the Temple (43:1-12)

3. The altar of burnt offering and its consecration (43:13-26)

4. Ordinances of the Temple (44:1-31)

a. restricted access to the Temple (44:1-9)

b. status of Levites (44:10-14)

c. the Zadokite priesthood (44:15-31)

H. Visions of the Restored Community: Sacred Things (45:1-46:24)

1. The envisioned Holy District (45:1-9)

2. Weights and measures standards for offerings (45:10-17)

3. Passover regulations (45:18-25)

4. Regulations concerning the Prince (46:1-18)

a. access to the Temple (46:1-10)

b. freewill offerings (46:11-15)

c. disposal of property (46:16-18)

5. Temple accommodations (46:19-24)

a. priests’ chambers (46:19-20)

b. Temple kitchens (46:21-24)

G. Visions of the Restored Community: The Land (40:1-48:35)

1. The Sacred River (47:1-12)

3. Allotment of the land (47:13-48:29)

a. boundaries of the land (47:13-20)

b. equal distribution (47:21-23)

c. allotment by tribes (48:1-7)

d. land reserved for the Temple and priestly use (48:8-14)

e. land for the city and the Prince (48:15-22)

f. the rest of the tribes’ allotment (48:23-29)

4. The New Jerusalem (48:30-35)

Themes in Ezekiel

The “glory of the Lord” in Ezekiel

1:28 Like the bow in a cloud on a rainy day, such was the appearance of the splendor all around. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. When I saw it, I fell on my face, and I heard the voice of someone speaking.

3:12 Then the spirit lifted me up, and as the glory of the LORD rose from its place, I heard behind me the sound of loud rumbling;

3:23 So I rose up and went out into the valley; and the glory of the LORD stood there, like the glory that I had seen by the river Chebar; and I fell on my face.

8:4 And the glory of the God of Israel was there, like the vision that I had seen in the valley.

9:3 Now the glory of the God of Israel had gone up from the cherub on which it rested to the threshold of the house. The LORD called to the man clothed in linen, who had the writing case at his side;

10:4 Then the glory of the LORD rose up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the glory of the LORD. 

10:18 Then the glory of the LORD went out from the threshold of the house and stopped above the cherubim.

10:19 The cherubim lifted up their wings and rose up from the earth in my sight as they went out with the wheels beside them. They stopped at the entrance of the east gate of the house of the LORD; and the glory of the God of Israel was above them.

11:22 Then the cherubim lifted up their wings, with the wheels beside them; and the glory of the God of Israel was above them.

11:23 And the glory of the LORD ascended from the middle of the city, and stopped on the mountain east of the city. 

39:13 All the people of the land shall bury them; and it will bring them honor on the day that I show my glory, says the Lord GOD.

39:21 I will display my glory among the nations; and all the nations shall see my judgment that I have executed, and my hand that I have laid on them.

43:2 And there, the glory of the God of Israel was coming from the east; the sound was like the sound of mighty waters; and the earth shone with his glory.

43:4  As the glory of the LORD entered the temple by the gate facing east,

43:5 the spirit lifted me up, and brought me into the inner court; and the glory of the LORD filled the temple.

44:4 Then he brought me by way of the north gate to the front of the temple; and I looked, and lo! the glory of the LORD filled the temple of the LORD; and I fell upon my face.

The idea of “know” in Ezekiel

2:5 Whether they hear or refuse to hear (for they are a rebellious house), they shall know that there has been a prophet among them.

5:13 My anger shall spend itself, and I will vent my fury on them and satisfy myself; and they shall know that I, the LORD, have spoken in my jealousy, when I spend my fury on them.

6:7 The slain shall fall in your midst; then you shall know that I am the LORD.

6:10 And they shall know that I am the LORD; I did not threaten in vain to bring this disaster upon them.

6:13 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when their slain lie among their idols around their altars, on every high hill, on all the mountain tops, under every green tree, and under every leafy oak, wherever they offered pleasing odor to all their idols.

6:14 I will stretch out my hand against them, and make the land desolate and waste, throughout all their settlements, from the wilderness to Riblah. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

7:4  My eye will not spare you, I will have no pity. I will punish you for your ways, while your abominations are among you. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.

7:9 My eye will not spare; I will have no pity. I will punish you according to your ways, while your abominations are among you. Then you shall know that it is I the LORD who strike.

 7:27  The king shall mourn, the prince shall be wrapped in despair, and the hands of the people of the land shall tremble. According to their way I will deal with them; according to their own judgments I will judge them. And they shall know that I am the LORD.

11:10 You shall fall by the sword; I will judge you at the border of Israel. And you shall know that I am the LORD.

11:12 Then you shall know that I am the LORD, whose statutes you have not followed, and whose ordinances you have not kept, but you have acted according to the ordinances of the nations that are around you."

12:15 And they shall know that I am the LORD, when I disperse them among the nations and scatter them through the countries.

12:16  But I will let a few of them escape from the sword, from famine and pestilence, so that they may tell of all their abominations among the nations where they go; then they shall know that I am the LORD.

12:20 The inhabited cities shall be laid waste, and the land shall become a desolation; and you shall know that I am the LORD.

13:9  My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations; they shall not be in the council of my people, nor be enrolled in the register of the house of Israel, nor shall they enter the land of Israel; and you shall know that I am the Lord GOD.

13:14  I will break down the wall that you have smeared with whitewash, and bring it to the ground, so that its foundation will be laid bare; when it falls, you shall perish within it; and you shall know that I am the LORD.

13:21 I will tear off your veils, and save my people from your hands; they shall no longer be prey in your hands; and you shall know that I am the LORD.

13:23 therefore you shall no longer see false visions or practice divination; I will save my people from your hand. Then you will know that I am the LORD.

14:8 I will set my face against them; I will make them a sign and a byword and cut them off from the midst of my people; and you shall know that I am the LORD.

14:23 They shall console you, when you see their ways and their deeds; and you shall know that it was not without cause that I did all that I have done in it, says the Lord GOD.

15:7 I will set my face against them; although they escape from the fire, the fire shall still consume them; and you shall know that I am the LORD, when I set my face against them.

16:62 I will establish my covenant with you, and you shall know that I am the LORD,

17:21 All the pick of his troops shall fall by the sword, and the survivors shall be scattered to every wind; and you shall know that I, the LORD, have spoken.

17:24  All the trees of the field shall know that I am the LORD. I bring low the high tree, I make high the low tree; I dry up the green tree and make the dry tree flourish. I the LORD have spoken; I will accomplish it.

20:5 and say to them: Thus says the Lord GOD: On the day when I chose Israel, I swore to the offspring of the house of Jacob--making myself known to them in the land of Egypt--I swore to them, saying, I am the LORD your God.

20:9  But I acted for the sake of my name, that it should not be profaned in the sight of the nations among whom they lived, in whose sight I made myself known to them in bringing them out of the land of Egypt.      

20:12  Moreover I gave them my sabbaths, as a sign between me and them, so that they might know that I the LORD sanctify them.

20:20  and hallow my sabbaths that they may be a sign between me and you, so that you may know that I the LORD am your God.

20:26 I defiled them through their very gifts, in their offering up all their firstborn, in order that I might horrify them, so that they might know that I am the LORD.

20:38 I will purge out the rebels among you, and those who transgress against me; I will bring them out of the land where they reside as aliens, but they shall not enter the land of Israel. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.      

20:42  You shall know that I am the LORD, when I bring you into the land of Israel, the country that I swore to give to your ancestors.

20:44 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I deal with you for my name's sake, not according to your evil ways, or corrupt deeds, O house of Israel, says the Lord GOD.

21:5 and all flesh shall know that I the LORD have drawn my sword out of its sheath; it shall not be sheathed again.

22:16 And I shall be profaned through you in the sight of the nations; and you shall know that I am the LORD.

22:22 As silver is melted in a smelter, so you shall be melted in it; and you shall know that I the LORD have poured out my wrath upon you.

23:49 They shall repay you for your lewdness, and you shall bear the penalty for your sinful idolatry; and you shall know that I am the Lord GOD.

24:24 Thus Ezekiel shall be a sign to you; you shall do just as he has done. When this comes, then you shall know that I am the Lord GOD.

24:27 On that day your mouth shall be opened to the one who has escaped, and you shall speak and no longer be silent. So you shall be a sign to them; and they shall know that I am the LORD.

25:5 I will make Rabbah a pasture for camels and Ammon a fold for flocks. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.

25:7 therefore I have stretched out my hand against you, and will hand you over as plunder to the nations. I will cut you off from the peoples and will make you perish out of the countries; I will destroy you. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.

25:11 and I will execute judgments upon Moab. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

25:14 I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel; and they shall act in Edom according to my anger and according to my wrath; and they shall know my vengeance, says the Lord GOD.

25:17 I will execute great vengeance on them with wrathful punishments. Then they shall know that I am the LORD, when I lay my vengeance on them.

26:6 and its daughter-towns in the country shall be killed by the sword. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

28:22 and say, Thus says the Lord GOD: I am against you, O Sidon, and I will gain glory in your midst. They shall know that I am the LORD when I execute judgments in it, and manifest my holiness in it;

28:23 for I will send pestilence into it, and bloodshed into its streets; and the dead shall fall in its midst, by the sword that is against it on every side. And they shall know that I am the LORD.

28:24 The house of Israel shall no longer find a pricking brier or a piercing thorn among all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt. And they shall know that I am the Lord GOD.

28:26 They shall live in safety in it, and shall build houses and plant vineyards. They shall live in safety, when I execute judgments upon all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt. And they shall know that I am the LORD their God.

29:6 Then all the inhabitants of Egypt shall know that I am the LORD because you were a staff of reed to the house of Israel;

29:9 and the land of Egypt shall be a desolation and a waste. Then they shall know that I am the LORD. Because you said, "The Nile is mine, and I made it,"

29:16 The Egyptians shall never again be the reliance of the house of Israel; they will recall their iniquity, when they turned to them for aid. Then they shall know that I am the Lord GOD.

29:21 On that day I will cause a horn to sprout up for the house of Israel, and I will open your lips among them. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

30:8 Then they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have set fire to Egypt, and all who help it are broken.

30:19 Thus I will execute acts of judgment on Egypt. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

30:25 I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, but the arms of Pharaoh shall fall. And they shall know that I am the LORD, when I put my sword into the hand of the king of Babylon. He shall stretch it out against the land of Egypt,

30:26 and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them throughout the countries. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

32:15 When I make the land of Egypt desolate and when the land is stripped of all that fills it, when I strike down all who live in it, then they shall know that I am the LORD.

33:29 Then they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have made the land a desolation and a waste because of all their abominations that they have committed.

33:33 When this comes--and come it will! --then they shall know that a prophet has been among them.

34:27 The trees of the field shall yield their fruit, and the earth shall yield its increase. They shall be secure on their soil; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I break the bars of their yoke, and save them from the hands of those who enslaved them.

34:30 They shall know that I, the LORD their God, am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are my people, says the Lord GOD.

35:4 I lay your towns in ruins; you shall become a desolation, and you shall know that I am the LORD.

35:9 I will make you a perpetual desolation, and your cities shall never be inhabited. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.

35:11 therefore, as I live, says the Lord GOD, I will deal with you according to the anger and envy that you showed because of your hatred against them; and I will make myself known among you, when I judge you.

35:12 You shall know that I, the LORD, have heard all the abusive speech that you uttered against the mountains of Israel, saying, "They are laid desolate, they are given us to devour."

35:15 As you rejoiced over the inheritance of the house of Israel, because it was desolate, so I will deal with you; you shall be desolate, Mount Seir, and all Edom, all of it. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

36:11 and I will multiply human beings and animals upon you. They shall increase and be fruitful; and I will cause you to be inhabited as in your former times, and will do more good to you than ever before. Then you shall know that I am the LORD.

36:23 I will sanctify my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, says the Lord GOD, when through you I display my holiness before their eyes.

***36:32 It is not for your sake that I will act, says the Lord GOD; let that be known to you. Be ashamed and dismayed for your ways, O house of Israel.      

36:36 Then the nations that are left all around you shall know that I, the LORD, have rebuilt the ruined places, and replanted that which was desolate; I, the LORD, have spoken, and I will do it.      

36:38 Like the flock for sacrifices, like the flock at Jerusalem during her appointed festivals, so shall the ruined towns be filled with flocks of people. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

37:6 I will lay sinews on you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live; and you shall know that I am the LORD."

37:13 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I open your graves, and bring you up from your graves, O my people.

37:14 I will put my spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you on your own soil; then you shall know that I, the LORD, have spoken and will act," says the LORD.

37:28 Then the nations shall know that I the LORD sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary is among them forevermore.

38:16 you will come up against my people Israel, like a cloud covering the earth. In the latter days I will bring you against my land, so that the nations may know me, when through you, O Gog, I display my holiness before their eyes.

38:23 So I will display my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations. Then they shall know that I am the LORD.

39:6 I will send fire on Magog and on those who live securely in the coastlands; and they shall know that I am the LORD.

39:7 My holy name I will make known among my people Israel; and I will not let my holy name be profaned any more; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

39:22 The house of Israel shall know that I am the LORD their God, from that day forward.

39:23 And the nations shall know that the house of Israel went into captivity for their iniquity, because they dealt treacherously with me. So I hid my face from them and gave them into the hand of their adversaries, and they all fell by the sword.

39:28 Then they shall know that I am the LORD their God because I sent them into exile among the nations, and then gathered them into their own land. I will leave none of them behind;

The “name” of God in Ezekiel

20:9 But I acted for the sake of my name, that it should not be profaned in the sight of the nations among whom they lived, in whose sight I made myself known to them in bringing them out of the land of Egypt.

20:14 But I acted for the sake of my name, so that it should not be profaned in the sight of the nations, in whose sight I had brought them out.

20:22 But I withheld my hand, and acted for the sake of my name, so that it should not be profaned in the sight of the nations, in whose sight I had brought them out.

20:44 And you shall know that I am the LORD, when I deal with you for my name's sake, not according to your evil ways, or corrupt deeds, O house of Israel, says the Lord GOD.

36:22 Therefore say to the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord GOD: It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for the sake of my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations to which you came.

36:23 I will sanctify my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, says the Lord GOD, when through you I display my holiness before their eyes.

36:32 It is not for your sake that I will act, says the Lord GOD; let that be known to you. Be ashamed and dismayed for your ways, O house of Israel.

39:7 My holy name I will make known among my people Israel; and I will not let my holy name be profaned any more; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel.

39:25 Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Now I will restore the fortunes of Jacob, and have mercy on the whole house of Israel; and I will be jealous for my holy name.

43:7 He said to me: Mortal, this is the place of my throne and the place for the soles of my feet, where I will reside among the people of Israel forever. The house of Israel shall no more defile my holy name, neither they nor their kings, by their whoring, and by the corpses of their kings at their death.

43:8 When they placed their threshold by my threshold and their doorposts beside my doorposts, with only a wall between me and them, they were defiling my holy name by their abominations that they committed; therefore I have consumed them in my anger.

48:35 The circumference of the city shall be eighteen thousand cubits. And the name of the city from that time on shall be, The LORD is There.

Biblical quotations are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright © 1989, Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America, and are used by permission. All rights reserved.

-Dennis Bratcher, Copyright © 2013, Dennis Bratcher, All Rights Reserved
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Ezekiel
 

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